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The Ohio State University Extension Logo

C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2014-23

July 22, 2014 - July 28, 2014 Editor: Debbie Brown

In this issue:

Some Additional Notes on Frogeye Leaf Spot

Scout for Western Bean Cutworm Eggs

Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day July 31st

Some Additional Notes on Frogeye Leaf Spot

Authors: Anne Dorrance



Following the field day at western last week, I received some excellent questions about the pathogen that causes frogeye leaf spot.

1.  Where does the inoculum come from?  Based on surveys of fields over the past few years, the pathogen can overwinter in Ohio.  And did overwinter in some fields this past year.  I expect that the snow cover helped that survival.  Frogeye leaf spot can also spread via storm movement, we have observed this as well this year.  Fields that had high levels of disease the year before,  will have lesions on the lower canopy on susceptible varieties of soybean.  Fields that only have lesions on leaves in the upper canopy may have been blown in by one of these storms.

 2.   Threshold for spraying – whole field or part of a field.  In the past 9 years of foliar applications, when I have gotten the best yield response from foliar fungicide application (8 bu/A or more) is when frogeye leaf spot is present in the field at 1 lesion per 25 square feet a the R1 to R2 growth stage – evenly distributed through the field. Basically all of the plots had some level of disease.

 This is a polycyclic disease, so the amount of disease is very dependent on the primary or first inoculum that is present in the field.  Every dew, rain event will have the favorable environment to promote new infections and allow the fungus to move up the plant and infect the new leaves.

 As each new layer of leaves are formed there are more lesions/leaf.  Initially due to low inoculum there will be 1 to 2, but by the end on super susceptible varieties it will be 20 to 40.  On moderate resistant varieties – it will be 4 to 5 lesions per new leaf.  And think how many new leaves there are on an older plant compared to a young plant.  What is cool about this disease is that once a leaf is fully expanded it is resistant. 

 3.  Another  observation is that if the disease is concentrated in one pocket of the field, it has not spread to high levels throughout the field.  In my trials at Western and in farmer-cooperator fields, it stayed limited to certain areas.  This opens the door for precision agriculture – if you need to apply material – use the CORRECT LABELED RATE for this disease in those areas of the field that have the most disease.  At western, half the field has lesions and half doesn’t, so we will have side by side comparisons.  I blocked the study based on the inoculum pressure.  If there is no disease – then I have not observed an economic return.

 4.  I will emphasize the fungicide story again.  When dealing with a pathogen that is present in the field, it is important to follow the labeled rate of the correct product.  Many of the fungicide mixes do not have the correct labeled rate, they used reduced rates of two products.  This is a great recipe for the fungus to develop resistance to two products not just one.  We know from my colleagues to the south and west and Ohio, all along the Mississippi river, Kentucky, Western Indiana, southern Illinois that resistance to headline has been found in the fungus populations that cause frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina).   So if you do choose to use a strobilurin, monitor the development of the lesions, two weeks after application.  If in doubt, we would be happy to work with you to evaluate for sensitivity to the fungicides.

 5.  One more note:  For those of you that know the names of these fungi.  Cercospora sojina is not the same fungus that causes gray leaf spot on corn, that fungus is Cercospora zeae-maydis.  Both of these fungi have limited host ranges, so gray leaf spot on corn is not the same as frogeye leaf spot on soybean.

 6. Economic thresholds for this year… keep in mind the price of the beans, the yield potential, and how much, if any disease you have present in the field.  At the most – we are looking at a 8 to 12 bushel return when frogeye is present.  If there is no disease, then it is unlikely you will see the benefit.  As always, if in doubt – insist on leaving untreated strips for yield comparisons.


Minimum cost of application required to determine economic thresholds for spraying soybeans.          




Price per bushel







+ 2 bu






+3 bu






+4 bu






+ 5 bu







Scout for Western Bean Cutworm Eggs

Scout for Western Bean Cutworm Eggs

Adult Western Bean Cutworm Counts

Authors: Andy Michel



The number of adult western bean cutworms that were caught increased dramatically over the last week (see figure).  Our previous years of trapping have shown that our hotspots for WBC activity are in the northwest and northeast Ohio, and this year we concentrated our trapping efforts in these areas.  Based on our current trapping results, we expect most of the egg laying to occur over the next week or so. 

Any corn that has not tasseled should be scouted for the presence of egg masses on the upper most leaves; the threshold is 5% of corn infested.  However, keep in mind that we have never had WBC over threshold in the 8 years it has been found in Ohio, so the likelihood of economic populations is low.  For more information, please see our fact sheet at

Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day July 31st

Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day July 31st

Side-Dressing Corn with Manure

Authors: Glen Arnold



Livestock producers and others interested in learning more about manure application technology are encouraged to attend the Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day being held on Thursday, July 31st at Homan Inc at 69115 Olding Road, Maria Stein in Mercer County.

A morning educational program from 9:30am to 11:30am will be held at the Homan Inc barn. Topics will include Nutrient Management-National, State, and Local Perspectives: Senate Bill 150-On-farm impacts: Utilizing Manure Nutrients to Improve Nitrogen Utilization and Management: Cover Crop Selection to Conserve Nitrogen for the Following Year: and BioSecurity for Manure Applicators

An afternoon field day will last from 1:00pm to 4:00pm. Toolbars to incorporate manure such as the Yetter, Dietrich and Aerway will be demonstrated. Bazooka and KIFCO equipment will also be demonstrated. The afternoon field day will be repeated that evening from 6:00pm to 9:00pm.

Harrod Farms will have their VIT unit on display. This toolbar was used to sidedress (incorporate) swine manure into almost 100 acres of corn at the V1 stage this spring using a drag hose. Manure applied will be dairy or beef; no swine manure will be used.

Several farmers in Ohio have started sidedressing corn with livestock manure using a manure tanker and incorporation toolbar. Manure tankers can be adapted for corn rows by utilizing narrow wheels and wheel spacers. At this field day corn will be sidedressed using a tanker and Dietrich toolbar.

The field day will also discuss Cover Crops as a 2nd Forage.  Cover crops are great for soil erosion control and they can also be a good source of additional livestock feed.

This field day is being organized by the Mercer County Extension office, the Grand Lake St Mary/Walbash River Watershed Alliance, and the Mercer County Soil & Water Conservation office. Certified Crop Advisor Credits and Certified Livestock Manager credits will be available.

There is no cost to attend the Western Ohio Manure Application Technology Field Day and preregistration is not necessary. Participants are asked to sign-in upon arrival to the site.

For more information contact the Mercer County OSU Extension office at 419-586-2179 or the Mercer County SWCD office at 419-586-3289. A flyer can be found at

C.O.R.N. is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio Crop Producers and Industry. C.O.R.N. is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, State Specialists at The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. C.O.R.N. Questions are directed to State Specialists, Extension Associates, and Agents associated with Ohio State University Extension and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at The Ohio State University.

Contributing to this issue:


Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist), Mark Badertscher (Hardin), Sam Custer (Darke), David Dugan (Adams, Brown, Highland), Greg LaBarge (Agronomy Field Specialist), Rory Lewandowski (Wayne), Les Ober (Geauga), Pierce Paul (Plant Pathology), Eric Richer (Fulton), Adam Shepard (Fayette), Alan Sundermeier (Wood), Peter Thomison (Corn Production), Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Extension Field Agronomist)


Anne Dorrance (Plant Pathologist-Soybeans), Andy Michel (Entomology), Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist)


Debbie Brown


Information presented above and where trade names are used, they are supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

Ohio State University Extension embraces human diversity and is committed to ensuring that all research and related educational programs are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, disability, or veteran status. This statement is in accordance with United States Civil Rights Laws and the USDA.

Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Agricultural Administration; Associate Dean, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences; Director, Ohio State University Extension and Gist Chair in Extension Education and Leadership.

TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-1868.

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