| || |
C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2014-04 Editor: Rob Leeds
In this issue:
Soybean Cyst Nematode expands range in Ohio
Figure 1, SCN known distribution in the U.S. and Canada
Authors: Terry Niblack, Nancy Taylor, Anne Dorrance
Approximately every three years the map is updated where SCN is found in the US. To do this task records from the diagnostic clinic and data from field studies are collected and the findings are plotted on the map. Greg Tylka from Iowa State University coordinates this effort with Figure 1 illustrating the latest results. As expected, in the last 3 years SCN was identified in more counties in Ohio. For a county to be colored red, at least one field has to be identified with populations over 200 eggs/cup soil.
We have identified fields across Ohio from west to east, next to the Pennsylvania border that have SCN. In addition, we are identifying more fields in the state with populations above the economic thresholds. With SCN populations of 1500 eggs/cup of soil, we have recorded 25 to 50% yield loss without any above ground symptoms. More troubling is the number of fields where populations are now reaching 20,000 eggs and higher. For these super high populations, rotation does not appear to be as effective as it is when populations are kept low.
The primary lesson: keep track of the fields with SCN and keep the populations low. The best means to keep populations low is still to rotate soybean with non-hosts crops such as: Wheat, Corn, Alfalfa, and Red Clover. Compare yields from the same variety to the county average, performance trials and among all of your fields. There are many reasons for soybeans not to yield the same, but consistently producing 10 to 15 bushel less can be an indication that SCN may be playing a role.
There are numerous labs that will measure the SCN populations, including OSU’s own C. Wayne Ellett Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic. The latest fact sheet has contact information for each of these labs. http://ohioline.osu.edu/ac-fact/pdf/0039.pdf. Sampling and tracking SCN populations are the first steps to successful management of this pathogen.
Nitrogen Application to Soybean Authors: Laura Lindsey
After talking with many farmers throughout Ohio during this year’s Extension meetings, one common question keeps popping up. “What about nitrogen application to soybean?” Yes, soybean plants have high nitrogen requirements due to the high protein content of grain. On average, approximately 4 lb N is removed per bushel of grain. (Corn only removes approximately 1 lb N per bushel of grain.) Soybean nitrogen requirements are met through both nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Bradyrhizobia) and residual/mineralized soil nitrogen.
With higher soybean yield potential, do we need to use nitrogen fertilizer on our soybeans? In most situations, applying nitrogen to soybean has no yield benefit. Nitrogen application may be beneficial in soils with low residual nitrogen and/or low soil organic matter.
In 2013, we examined various nitrogen sources (polymer-coated urea, urea, and sulfur-coated urea), nitrogen rates (ranging from 30-400 lb N/ac), nitrogen placement (2-inch by 2-inch band and surface-applied), and nitrogen application timing (at planting and R3) at ten locations throughout Ohio. Across all ten locations, there was no yield benefit to any nitrogen source, rate, placement, or application timing. Our soybean yield averaged 43 to 75 bu/ac depending on location. This research will be repeated in 2014.
One way to maximize nitrogen uptake by soybean plants without applying nitrogen fertilizer is by adjusting soil pH. Nodulation of soybean roots is adversely affected when soil pH drops below 6.0. In 2013, we collected soil samples from 65 farms throughout Ohio. Overall, 29% of the samples we collected had soil pH <6.0. Low soil pH occurred primarily east of I-71 (north eastern and eastern Ohio) where soils do not have as much lime content. However, there were a few areas in northwestern and western Ohio that had soil pH <6.0. We suggest taking a soil sample and adjusting soil pH to be >6.0 to maximize nitrogen uptake by soybean.
Spread of giant ragweed across the North Central Region – results of a CCA survey Authors:
Emilie Regnier, Mark Loux
Weed scientists at OSU recently completed a survey of Certified Crop Advisors across the North Central region to determine the relative abundance of giant ragweed, and the factors influencing its spread. The results of this survey are summarized in a Powerpoint file posted to the giant ragweed section of the OSU Weed Management website http://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/weeds. Dr. Emilie Regnier, lead investigator on the survey, also provided the following abbreviated summary of the findings.
Giant ragweed is one of a relatively few native plant species that is a major weed of grain crops in North America. We conducted a web-based survey of Certified Crop Advisors in the Corn Belt to determine the distribution of giant ragweed and gain insights into possible factors associated with its spread. The questionnaire asked participants to provide their perceptions and county-level estimates of giant ragweed related to its first occurrence as a problematic weed in crop fields, the proportion of crop acres infested, and habitats where found. Based on the survey responses, giant ragweed was reported to appear in crop fields 20 years ago or longer in western Ohio, most of Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southeastern Minnesota, and eastern Iowa. In most counties outside this area of the Corn Belt, giant ragweed was reported to appear in crop fields more recently, and in some counties, only in the last 5 years (e.g., northern Wisconsin). Nearly all respondents indicated that giant ragweed was already present in non-crop edge habitats such as riverbanks and fencerows before it appeared in crop fields. Although giant ragweed is considered a riparian species, the survey results indicated that it is well established throughout the Corn Belt in both riparian and upland edge habitats. Giant ragweed was listed as the most difficult weed to manage in counties located in Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska. Most of these counties were located near the upper Mississippi River where Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois meet. Counties reporting giant ragweed present in 60% or more of crop fields were located in this same region but also southward along the Mississippi River to Tennessee, west of the Mississippi along the Iowa-Missouri border and into eastern Nebraska, and also along the Missouri River in Missouri. East of the Mississippi, counties with giant ragweed present in 60% or more of crop acres were located in northwest Illinois, most of Indiana, and west-central Ohio.
The timing of giant ragweed emergence varied across the region with giant ragweed emerging earlier and for a longer period of time in the east-central region of the Corn Belt (i.e., Ohio and Indiana) than in other areas. Difficulty of managing giant ragweed was associated with its presence in waterways, and with an earlier and longer emergence period. Reduced use of conventional tillage in corn and soybean fields was associated with increased difficulty of managing giant ragweed. Based on these results, it appears that giant ragweed first became a problem weed in the east-central region of the Corn Belt and is now becoming established in crop fields in areas outside of that region, especially toward the North and West. It is likely that giant ragweed spreads initially through a variety of non-crop edge habitats and then becomes established in areas adjacent to crop fields such as waterways and fencerows, and from there it can quickly get established in crop fields. Giant ragweed emergence characteristics and reduced tillage both play a role in the development of giant ragweed as a problem weed in crop fields. Late-emerging giant ragweed genotypes that create the most problems for soybean growers are prevalent in Ohio, likely due in part to a combination of reduced tillage and earlier crop planting dates over the past several decades.
2014 Conservation Tillage Conference, CCAs and continuing education Authors: Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
The Conservation Tillage and technology Conference annually attracts 900 attendees, who say this is one of the best crop production conferences in Ohio. The program this year will be held March 4th & 5th, in Ada Ohio on the Ohio Northern University campus. Certified Crop Advisers can attend the sessions for continuing education credits again this year. Registration information is posted on the Conservation Tillage Conference website: http://ctc.osu.edu for everyone – farmers and their crop advisors.
The CTC is an annual 2-day educational program with about 60 speakers in four concurrent sessions. Session titles typically are:
• Corn University
• Soybean School
• Cover Crops
• Nutrient Management
• Soil & Water Quality
• Precision Agriculture
• Advanced Scouting Techniques – by CCAs and for CCAs
• No-till Systems
A listing of approved CCA CEUs along with the CCA agenda can be found on the Agronomic Crops website at: http://go.osu.edu/2014CTCCCA. CCAs should look over the agenda for the excellent program but can also find those elusive Soil & Water sessions as well as numerous Nutrient Management credits.
• This year on Tuesday March 4th we provide 6.0 CM, 3.5 NM, 3.0 PM and 10.5 SW continuing education credits.
• For Wednesday we have 7.5 CM, 6.5 NM, 0.5 PD, 1.5 PM and 6.5 SW CEUs.
• A total of 45.5 CEUs over the two days – split into four concurrent sessions.
For easier tracking of CEUs the sign in sheet will now contain a QR code so those CCAs with smart phones will be able to scan the QR code to report their CEUs. This means that if they are scanning the QR code, they will not have to fill out the sign-in sheet and their CEUs will be recorded within hours of completing the class. With 4,000 records from past conferences, it took us a while to get through them for posting, so this helps us all. The app can be located by searching on the term: “Certified Crop Adviser” in the Apple or Android app store. A link can also be found here for more information: https://www.certifiedcropadviser.org/continuing-education. Because of the high number of CEUs at this program we are asking all CCAs with a smartphone to use this method for reporting.
Webinar on Western Corn Rootworm Authors: Andy Michel, Ron Hammond
Corn producers may be interested in this upcoming webinar at 2 PM (Eastern Time Zone) on February 20th. This webinar features experts on western corn rootworm (WCR) biology and management from the western corn belt. There has been a renewed interest in WCR in this area of the country ever since growers have reported problems with resistance to Bt (Cry3Bb1). While this webinar will provide very valuable information, producers should keep in mind differences in managing WCR in Ohio than what is occurring out west. For example, we have no reports of Bt resistance yet in our state, and crop rotation remains our best management tactic to prevent resistance from occurring, as well as prevent damage from WCR. The webinar can be accessed here: https://connect.unl.edu/r9ra3734mey/. Just enter your name, and you will be able to attend the webinar. This webinar is supported by the USDA-NIFA North Central IPM Center
Cover Crops and Soil Health Forum to Take Place February 18 Authors: Alan Sundermeier
You are invited to attend a free, live broadcast of the National Conference on Cover Crops and Soil Health and discuss how to build soil health, improve yields, curb erosion, manage pests and build resilience in your farming system. On Feb. 18, locations in every state across the country will host Cover Crops and Soil Health Forums where farmers will have the opportunity to learn from one another while exploring local and national perspectives on cover crops.
Facilitated discussions on local issues pertaining to cover crops will follow a live-streamed broadcast of opening sessions from the national conference in Omaha, Nebraska, including a dialogue with Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack (invited) and Howard G. Buffett, plus a panel discussion with expert farmers, including Dave Brandt from Carroll, Ohio. Because the national conference attendance is limited, the local forums represent a way to include farmers, educators and researchers across the country in the emerging conversation about the use and benefits of cover crops.
The Cover Crops and Soil Health Forums will be held on Feb. 18 starting at 9:00 am to noon EST at the following Ohio locations:
Wayne County Administrative Building, 428 West Liberty St., Wooster, OH, 44691. Call: OSU Extension Rory Lewandowski at 330-264-8722.
To RSVP for the following NRCS offices contact NRCS Soil Scientist Steve Baker at 614-255-2483 or e-mail at email@example.com
NRCS office at 7868 CR 140, Findlay, OH 45840
NRCS office at 1000 Locust St., Owensville, OH 45160
NRCS office at 220 West Livingston St., Celina, OH 45822
NRCS office at 771 East Main St., Suite 100, Newark, OH 43055
NRCS office at 9711 East Pike Rd., Cambridge, OH 43725
NRCS office at 831 College Ave., Suite B., Lancaster, OH 43130
Please RSVP to ensure adequate seating and to get specific details about the forum as programs will vary by location.
Both the national conference and the local forums are jointly funded by SARE and the Howard G. Buffett Foundation, with planning support from NRCS, the Midwest Cover Crops Council and the Soil and Water Conservation Society. The Omaha conference is invitation only; the local forums are free and open to the public.
For more information about the Cover Crops and Soil Health Forums and a list of forum locations, visit www.SARE.org/covercropconference.
GAP Training for Tobacco Producers Authors: David Dugan
GAP training is now pretty much an expected thing for tobacco growers. Some companies required GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) last year, so some people have already been trained in the initial part, but will need advanced training this year. GAP consists of several things about the production of the crop, record keeping, and more.
I currently have 3 opportunities for GAP training. The space is limited for these sessions, so you must pre-register. There is no charge for the class, but you do need to log onto http://gapconnections.com and get that part done prior to the training. Please call the Adams County, OSU Extension Office to register ASAP. These may fill up and if they do I may offer an additional session. Call Pam in Adams Co. at (937) 544-2339 to register for one of the following times: March 10 at 4:00 p.m. at the Ohio Valley CTC in West Union; March 10 at 7:30 p.m. at the Ohio Valley CTC; or March 19 at the Southern Hills CTC in Georgetown at 1:00 p.m.
As I said, there is no charge, you need to go to the web and get yourself registered at the address above. Then call Pam so we know how many we will have at each session. All Pam will need is your name, phone number and the county you produce tobacco in.
|C.O.R.N. is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio Crop Producers and Industry. C.O.R.N. is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, State Specialists at The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. C.O.R.N. Questions are directed to State Specialists, Extension Associates, and Agents associated with Ohio State University Extension and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at The Ohio State University. |
Contributing to this issue:
Contributors: Mark Badertscher (Hardin), Debbie Brown (Shelby), Sam Custer (Darke), Nathan Douridas (FSR Farm Manager), Mike Gastier (Huron), Mark Loux (Weed Science), Rory Lewandowski (Wayne), Les Ober (Geauga), Steve Prochaska (Agronomy Field Specialist), Eric Richer (Fulton), Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist), Greg LaBarge (Agronomy Field Specialist)
Authors: Terry Niblack (Plant Pathology - Nematologist), Nancy Taylor, Anne Dorrance (Plant Pathologist-Soybeans), Laura Lindsey (Soybeans and Small Grains), Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Extension Field Agronomist), Andy Michel (Entomology), Ron Hammond (Entomology), Alan Sundermeier (Wood), David Dugan (Adams, Brown, Highland)
Editor: Rob Leeds
Disclaimer Information presented above and where trade names are used, they are supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.
Ohio State University Extension embraces human diversity and is committed to ensuring that all research and related educational programs are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, disability, or veteran status. This statement is in accordance with United States Civil Rights Laws and the USDA.
Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Agricultural Administration; Associate Dean, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences; Director, Ohio State University Extension and Gist Chair in Extension Education and Leadership.
TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-1868.