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C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2014 - 30
September 9 - September 16 Editor: Adam Shepard
In this issue:
Fall Weather Outlook
Authors: Jim Noel
The second half of August into early September experienced above normal temperatures as we expected. Rainfall has been at or above normal the last 30-days except in the northwest and south central parts of the state where it was below normal.
The outlook is for the warmer than normal weather to end this week with below normal temperatures pushing back into Ohio for 1-2 weeks. Temperatures will likely swing back to slightly above normal by the end of September into early October.
Rainfall is forecast to average near normal for the rest of September.
A strong cold front will push through the state late Wednesday with a band of storms. Temperatures will plunge behind the front with highs mostly in the 60s and lows in the 40s into the upcoming weekend. A few low lying areas of northern Ohio could see a few upper 30s for low temperatures but frost does not appear to be a concern.
The outlook remains unchanged into autumn with temperatures normal to slightly cooler than normal and rainfall normal to slightly wetter than normal. Frost and freeze outlooks continues to suggest about a normal onset in the first half of October for anything significant related to freezes.
Cover Crop Field Day Announcement
Authors: Debbie Brown
A Cover Crop Field Day will be held Thursday, September 25, 2014, 1:30p – 4:00p and 6:00p to Dark. This will be held at Stanley and Debbie Brown’s farm on State Route 364, St. Marys, OH (South of Grand Lake St. Marys). The fields are ¼ mile south of the St. Marys Township House which is located at 10752 SR 364, east side of the road.
There were ten (10) different crops and mixtures planted in wheat stubble; cover crops were also planted in standing corn. The machine that did that work will be on site for people to see. It can plant one acre per minute.
Refreshments will be available at the site.
This Field Day is sponsored by the Auglaize, Mercer, and Shelby County offices of Ohio State University Extension. For further information contact OSU Extension at:
Auglaize Co. Mercer Co. Shelby Co.
John M. Smith Denny Riethman Debbie Brown
419-739-6580 419-586-2179 937-498-7239
Wheat Management for Fall 2014
Wheat planting in Ohio (Ohio Country Journal)
Authors: Laura Lindsey, Pierce Paul, Ed Lentz
Most soybean fields in Ohio were planted during the last week of May into the first week of June. With later than normal soybean planting and unusual weather this summer, we anticipate soybean harvest to be later than normal. It’s ideal to plant wheat shortly after the Hessian Fly Safe Date, but this may be challenging this year. If wheat planting is delayed three to four weeks after the fly-free date, we recommend increasing seeding rate to 1.6-2.0 million seeds per acre or 24-30 seeds per foot of row.
Other management considerations for planting winter wheat:
Select high-yielding varieties with high test weight, good straw strength, and adequate disease resistance. Do not jeopardize your investment by planting anything but the best yielding varieties that also have resistance to the important diseases in your area. Depending on your area of the state, you may need good resistance to powdery mildew, Stagonospora leaf blotch, and/or leaf rust. Avoid varieties with susceptibility to Fusarium head scab. Plant seed that has been properly cleaned to remove shriveled kernels and treated with a fungicide seed treatment to control seed-borne diseases. The 2014 Ohio Wheat Performance Test results can be found at: http://oardc.osu.edu/wheattrials/
Plant after the Hessian Fly Safe Date for your county. This date varies between September 22
for northern counties and October 5
for southern-most counties. Planting before the Fly Safe Date, increases the risk of insect and diseases problems including Hessian Fly and aphids carrying Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus. The best time to plant is within 10 days after the Fly Safe Date. Fall wheat growth is reduced when planting is delayed resulting in reduced winter hardiness. The Hessian Fly Safe Date for each county can be found at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/iwy/flydates.html
Optimum seeding rates are between 1.2 and 1.6 million seeds per acre. For drills with 7.5-inch row spacing this is about 18 to 24 seeds per foot of row with normal sized seed. When wheat is planted on time, actual seeding rate has little effect on yield, but high seeding rates (above 30 seeds per foot of row) increase lodging and the risk of severe powdery mildew development next spring. There is no evidence that more seed is better, it only costs more money.
Planting depth is critical for tiller development and winter survival. Plant seed 1.5 inches deep and make sure planting depth is uniform across the field. No-till wheat into soybean stubble is ideal, but make sure the soybean residue is uniformly spread over the surface of the ground. Shallow planting is the main cause of low tiller numbers and poor over-winter survival due to heaving and freezing injury. Remember, you cannot compensate for a poor planting job by planting more seeds; it just costs more money.
Apply 20 to 30 lb of actual nitrogen per acre at planting to promote fall tiller development. A soil test should be completed to determine phosphorus and potassium needs. Wheat requires more phosphorus than corn or soybean, and soil test levels should be maintained between 25-40 ppm for optimum production. If the soil test indicates less than 25 ppm, then apply 80 to 100 pounds of P2
at planting, depending on yield potential. Do not add any phosphorus if soil test levels are higher than 50 ppm. Soil potassium should be maintained at levels of 100, 120, and 140 ppm for soils with cation exchange capacities of 10, 20, or 30 meq, respectively. If potassium levels are low, apply 100-200 pounds of K2
O at planting, depending on soil CEC and yield potential
. In Ohio, limed soils usually have adequate calcium, magnesium, and sulfur for wheat. Soil pH should be between 6.3 and 7.0. The key to a successful wheat crop is adequate and timely management.
Fields are starting to turn a golden yellow – last chance to grab some data
Soybean Cyst Nematode (Dorrance, A.)
Authors: Anne Dorrance
The forcast is now turning more fall like and many fields in the state are turning that golden yellow color so if you haven’t checked your fields – this may be the last week to get some very important information.
Crop rotation is not used as often as we would like these days, but one disease that can really get us is frogeye leaf spot. Where I planted a susceptible variety in the same field that we had frogeye before now has more than 15% of the leaf area affected in untreated plots. If you are a continuous bean, no till farmer – then please check those fields to see what diseases might come back next year. If you do have a lot of disease – you can make adjustments, careful variety selection, light tillage or changing crops for one to two years will reduce the impact of the disease in 2015.
Sclerotinia stem rot – It is very noticeable now in many areas of the state this year. Note those fields and locations because the sclerotia will be with you for some time. Make harvest plans – for severely infested fields – harvest them last.
SDS/Brown stem rot. Had a very interesting sample this week from a field. Leaves were green with pale yellow spots and very little necrosis. The first thought was SDS until we opened the stems, it was clearly brown stem rot. It is always a good idea to split stems just to verify what you have. It will make a difference when you choose a variety.
Uneven yellowing – as the field matures the whole field should turn golden yellow at the same time. If one pocket turns yellow first, and you know it is not flooding or poor drainage, there is a very good chance it could be soybean cyst nematode. Go dig some plants, hold them for 2 to 4 minutes and then look for the SCN females on the roots. If you do have early maturing pockets, target those areas for SCN sampling after harvest. It is always good to know your SCN numbers, To quote Greg Tylka from Iowa State “it is much easier to keep SCN low than to try and drive the numbers down after they have gotten to high”.
Dead brown plants, that look like they were hit with a flame thrower – nice and dry and crispy. Phytophthora stem rot is the most likely culprit
. Again variety selection for those with high levels of field resistance will save you stand throughout the season.
Taking the time to assess stands and final crop health will go a long ways to reducing losses the next time that field is planted to soybean. Enjoy the walk!
Knox County Agronomy Field Day
Authors: John Barker
Knox County Agronomy Field Day
When: Tuesday, September 23 (Rain date?Thursday, September 25)
Time: Noon - 5 p.m.
Where: Coe Farm, south of Mount Vernon (8299 Granville Road, Corner of SR 661 and Blackjack Road)Hosts: The Coe Family and Scott McCann
Noon: Grain Bin Rescue and Farm Safety
1 p.m. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) Uses in Agriculture
John Barker, OSU Extension
Tim Norris, Ag InfoTech
1:45 p.m. Vertical Tillage Demonstrations
- John Deere?Shearer Equipment
- Great Plains?Shearer Equipment
- Case IH?Evolution Ag
- Salford?Evolution Ag
- Kuhn Krause?Advantage Ag
3:00 p.m. Cover Crop Options for Central Ohio
- Jim Hoorman?OSU Extension
4:00 p.m. Yield Monitor Calibration
- The Steps You Need to Know
John Deere?Shearer Equipment
Case IH?Evolution Ag
Ag Leader?Tim Norris
5:00 p.m. Have A Safe Trip Home
Sponsors: OSU Extension Knox ? Knox SWCD ? Seed Consultants ? Farm Credit
Farm Science Review and CCA Continuing Education
Authors: Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
The 2014 Farm Science Review is next week, many across Ohio will be attending to learn more about what it means to grow a crop in this eastern cornbelt state. One group is the Certified Crop Advisers; again this year the Agronomic Crops Team, the Sustainable Ag Crops Team and the Gwynne Conservation Area committee have joined forces to deliver to CCAs that continuing education on site. CEUs are available in all categories Soil & Water, Nutrient Management, Pest Management and Crop Management – without additional cost once you present you ticket to get on the grounds.
For a listing of CEUs with directions to each site see the Links section of the Agronomic Crops webpage: http://agcrops.osu.edu/links. Or click directly on this link for more information: http://agcrops.osu.edu/links/2014-farm-science-review-certified-crop-adviser-ceus. Once you have the listing you want to learn from - enjoy the presentation, then sign in on the CCA CEU attendance sheet with date and time of program, your name and CCA number.
We look forward to seeing you there.
C.O.R.N. is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio Crop Producers and Industry. C.O.R.N. is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, State Specialists at The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. C.O.R.N. Questions are directed to State Specialists, Extension Associates, and Agents associated with Ohio State University Extension and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at The Ohio State University.
Contributing to this issue:
Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist), Greg LaBarge (Agronomy Field Specialist), Les Ober (Geauga), Mark Badertscher (Hardin), Mike Gastier (Huron), Steve Prochaska (Agronomy Field Specialist), Rory Lewandowski (Wayne), Sam Custer (Darke), Sarah Noggle (Paulding), Ted Wiseman (Licking & Perry), Bruce Clevenger (Defiance), Eric Richer (Fulton), David Dugan (Adams, Brown, Highland), Mark Loux (Weed Science), Andy Michel (Entomology)
Jim Noel (NOAA/NWS), Debbie Brown (Shelby), Laura Lindsey (Soybeans and Small Grains), Pierce Paul (Plant Pathology), Ed Lentz (Hancock), Anne Dorrance (Plant Pathologist-Soybeans), John Barker (Knox), Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Agronomy Field Specialist)
Information presented above and where trade names are used, they are supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.
Ohio State University Extension embraces human diversity and is committed to ensuring that all research and related educational programs are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, disability, or veteran status. This statement is in accordance with United States Civil Rights Laws and the USDA.
Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Agricultural Administration; Associate Dean, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences; Director, Ohio State University Extension and Gist Chair in Extension Education and Leadership.
TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-1868.